Rehabilitating Completed Coal Mines

Rehabilitating Mining Operations

The Importance of Rehabilitating Completed Coal Mine Sites.

In this current era, it is very encouraging to see that mining companies are being held accountable for the impact of their operations on the environment.

One significant aspect of this accountability is the comprehensive rehabilitation of mining sites once the extraction process is complete.

Unlike the practices of long ago, modern requirements for mine site rehabilitation are much more stringent.

Today I thought it would be good to shed some light on the positive changes in the mining industry with modern rehabilitation work, the various equipment used in the process and how it is done.

The Evolution of Mine Lease Rehabilitation Practices.

Over the past few decades, there has been a growing recognition of the environmental damage caused by mining activities.

30-50 years ago mining companies often neglected the rehabilitation of their mining leases and the Local, State and Federal Governments didn’t really insist up on a lot from them either.

This left behind scars on the landscape, land that was basically useless unless people that might take over this land were prepared rehabilitate the land at their costs.

The way these mine sites were left when abandoned long ago also exposed the surrounding ecosystems to further degradation.

It was all rather awful and I’m delighted at how much it has now changed.  Constantly increasing public awareness over the years and more informed people working in Government eventually led to much stricter regulations.   This has now led to significant changes to how mining companies approached rehabilitation; the entire industry has undergone a significant transformation.

Today, mining companies are legally obligated to rehabilitate their completed coal mine sites. This means restoring the land to a state that is as close as possible to its pre-mining condition.

The focus is not only on minimizing the physical impact but also on restoring the ecological balance and creating sustainable ecosystems.

The also now don’t wait until the mining operations have finished to rehabilitate the lease, they do this work on an ongoing basis from Day 1 of mining operations.  As soon as they have finished with one area, they assign significant resources to rehabilitation work.

The Role of Stringent Rehabilitation Requirements.

The current era mine approval process demands comprehensive rehabilitation plans be submitted as part of the approval process.

What they are proposing to do and how is reviewed before the first bit of soil is scraped away on a proposed site.  All aspects are reviewed including landform reconstruction, soil stabilization, and re-vegetation.

These requirements aim to minimise erosion, improve water quality, and promote the return of native flora and fauna gradually over the years that the mining company would be in operation on their lease.

The Equipment Used in Rehabilitation.

Rehabilitating completed coal mine sites requires the use of an array of various specialised equipment that can efficiently restore the land and promote the growth of vegetation.

Below is just some of the commonly used equipment in the rehabilitation process:

1.    Bulldozers: Bulldozers play a crucial role in landform reconstruction. They are used to reshape the terrain, create drainage systems, and establish stable slopes. By carefully sculpting the land, bulldozers help recreate the natural topography, which is essential for successful rehabilitation.

2.   Dump Trucks: These heavy-duty vehicles are used to transport in soil, sand and other land transformation materials across the area that is being rehabilitated.

3.   Excavators: Excavators are often used for soil removal and repositioning. They help in the process of land reclamation by removing excess soil and redistributing it to areas where it is needed. This ensures a balanced distribution of soil nutrients and promotes healthy plant growth.

4.   Graders: Graders are used to level the ground and create smooth surfaces. They play a vital role in preparing the land for re-vegetation by removing any remaining debris or uneven surfaces. This helps in the establishment of a stable and uniform landscape.

5.   Seeders and Hydro Seeders: Seeders and hydro seeders are used to distribute seeds and soil additives over the rehabilitated areas. They ensure an even distribution of seeds, promoting the growth of native plants and vegetation. Hydro seeders, in particular, use a mixture of seeds, mulch, fertilizer, and water to create an ideal environment for plant growth.

6.   Mechanical Tree Planters: Planting trees is an essential part of mine site rehabilitation. Mechanical tree planters are used to efficiently plant trees over large areas. These machines can dig holes, place the saplings, and cover the roots with soil, ensuring proper planting techniques are followed.

7.   Drone Sprayers: Drone sprayers have revolutionized the process of applying herbicides and fertilizers in mine site rehabilitation. They can cover large areas quickly and accurately, reducing the need for manual application. Drone sprayers are especially useful in hard-to-reach or steep areas, ensuring uniform application of necessary substances.

Topsoil Replacement/Reconstruction Work.

One of the critical aspects of mine site rehabilitation is the reconstruction of soil profiles to support future land use.

Mining companies must adhere to strict specifications to ensure the land is suitable for activities such as farming or forestry. The process typically involves:

1.    Soil Mapping: Before mining begins, detailed soil mapping helps identify the original topsoil composition. This information guides the rehabilitation process.

2.   Topsoil Preservation/Stockpiling: Before mining operations begin, the layers of topsoil and rock are carefully removed and stockpiled for later use during rehabilitation.

3.   Soil Profile Reconstruction: As mining activities in a certain area of the lease are completed, the top layers of soil, sand and rock etc are replaced via a specified procedure.  Additional soil amendments, such as compost or fertilizers, are often added to improve soil quality.

4.   Contouring and Drainage: The land is contoured to mimic natural landscapes, ensuring proper drainage and erosion control.

The topsoil layers are critical for supporting plant growth and nutrient cycling.

Vegetation Restoration Techniques.

Revegetation is a crucial component of mine site rehabilitation, as it helps stabilize the soil, prevent erosion, and restore ecological functions. Mining companies employ various techniques to establish vegetation cover, including:

1.    Seed Spraying (Hydroseeding): Hydroseeding involves spraying a slurry like mix of native grass and wildflower seeds, water, fertilizer, soil tackifiers and mulch, which is then sprayed onto the soil.  As you would expect, native plant species are preferred for longevity and compatibility with the surrounding area.

2.   Tree Planting: A variety of tree species, ranging from fast-growing pioneers to long-lived climax species are planted.  They use a holistic approach that includes planting trees, shrubs, and other vegetation. Hollow-bearing trees, nesting boxes, and rock piles enhance biodiversity and ecosystem functionality.

Monitoring and Adapting Rehabilitation Progress.

Regulatory agencies closely monitor the rehabilitation process to ensure mining companies comply with environmental regulations and meet the required standards.

Regular inspections and audits are conducted to assess the progress and effectiveness of rehabilitation efforts.

Prior to operations being approved, mining companies are usually required to provide financial assurances or bonds to ensure that sufficient funds are available for the completion of rehabilitation activities, even in the event of company insolvency or closure.

By adhering to these comprehensive rehabilitation practices, mining companies can mitigate the environmental impact of their operations and contribute to the long-term sustainability of the land and its resources.

Most of what they do is proactive, modern mining companies tend to have a substantially large environmental department. 

Employees in these departments monitor and take part in the rehabilitation efforts over time. Adjustments are made based on the site’s planned rehab progress to ensure targets are met and long-term sustainability of the land is achieved.


The rehabilitation of completed coal mine site areas has become an essential component of responsible mining practices.

The evolution of rehabilitation requirements, as well as the use of dedicated equipment and personnel, have greatly improved the industry’s environmental stewardship approach.

Mining companies that gradually rehabilitate mining sites not only meet their legal obligations, but also contribute to the restoration and preservation of our planet’s natural resources.

Successful mine rehabilitation is more than just ticking boxes; it is about leaving a legacy of responsible land use that benefits both the environment and local communities.

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